What are the digital competencies needed in the future? Our head of department has challenged me to talk about this topic at an internal seminar today. Here is a summary of what I said.
Competencies vs skills
First, I think it is crucial to separate competencies from skills. The latter relates to how you do something. There has been much focus on teaching skills, mainly teaching people how to use various software or hardware. This is not necessarily bad, but it is not the most productive thing in higher education, in my opinion. Developing competency goes beyond learning new skills.
Some argue that skill is only one of three parts of competency, with knowledge and abilities being the others:
Skills + Knowledge + Abilities = Competencies
So a skill can be seen as part of competency, but it is not the same. This is particularly important in higher education, where the aim is to train students for life-long careers. As university teachers, we need to develop our students’ competencies, not only their skills.
Digital vs technological competency
Another misunderstanding is that “digital” and “technology” are synonyms, and they are not. Technologies can be either digital or analogue (or a combination). Think of “computers”. The word originated from humans (often women) that manually computed advanced calculations. Human computers were eventually replaced by mechanical machine computers, while today we mainly find digital computers. Interestingly, there is a growing amount of research on analogue computers again.
I often argue that traditional music notation is a digital representation. Notes such as “C”, “D”, and “E” are symbolic representations of a discrete nature, and these digital notes may be transformed into analogue tones once performed.
One often talks about the differences between acoustic and digital instruments. This is a division I criticise in my upcoming book, but I will leave that argument aside for now. Independent of the sound production, I have over the years grown increasingly fond of Tellef Kvifte’s approach to separating between analogue and digital control mechanisms of musical instruments. Then one could argue that an acoustic piano is a digital instrument because it is based on discrete control (with separate keys for “C”, “D”, “E”…).
Four levels of technology research and usage
When it comes to music technologies, I often like to think of four different layers: basic research, applied research and development, usage, and various types of meta-perspectives. I have given some examples of what these may entail in the table below.