Some thoughts on non-linear presentation tools

Many people rely on what I will call linear presentation tools when they lecture. This includes software such as LibreOffice Impress, Google Presentation, MS PowerPoint, or Keynote. These tools are great for smooth, timed, linear lectures. I also use them from time to time, but mainly if I know exactly what to say. They are also good when I lecture with others, and we need to develop a presentation together. However, linear presentation tools do not work equally well for general teaching, where spontaneity is required. For example, I often like to take questions during lectures. Answering questions may quickly lead to a different presentation order than what I had originally planned. For that reason, I have explored different non-linear presentation tools.

Document camera as presentation tool

Sometimes, but seldom, I only speak when I teach. I am a person that thinks very visually, so when I want to explain something, I usually prefer to show something as well. I used to be quite happy with using a black- or whiteboard when teaching, but some years ago I invested in a document camera.

Teaching with my document camera in the MCT Portal.

The benefit of teaching with a document camera is that I can show small instruments or electronic parts while teaching. It, of course, also works well to write and draw with pen and paper. In fact, I prefer this to write on a whiteboard.

When we started up the MCT master’s programme, I found that the document camera also worked well for online teaching, and during the pandemic, I have used it for several online presentations. Here is an example of how this looks like from a RITMO presentation about microphones earlier this year.

Such a setup allows me for writing with pen on paper, which leads to a very different delivery than if I am using pre-made slides. It also allows for showing things in front of the camera. The downside to using a document camera is that you need to make all the content on the fly. I usually have a draft of what I want to say, which helps in structuring my thoughts. Sometimes I even pre-make some “slides” that can be shown in front of the camera. But there are also times where I want to pre-make more material. Then I have found that mind-mapping works well.

Mind maps as a presentation tool

I have often found that my drafts for document camera-based lectures were developed as mind maps. That is, multi-dimensional drawings spreading out from a core title or concept. For that reason, I wanted to test whether I could use mind mapping software for presentations.

Over the last couple of years, I have tested various solutions. In the end, I have found Mindomo to fit my needs very well. It is online-based, but they also have a multi-platform app that works well on Ubuntu. It is not the most feature-reach mind mapping software out there, but it has a nice balance of features versus usability. I also like that it has a presentation mode that removes all the editing tools. As such, it works very well for mind map-based presentations.

I have primarily used mind map-based presentations for teaching and internal seminars, but some weeks ago I decided to test it for a research presentation. I was asked to present at the EnTimeMent workshop run by Qualisys, but as I was preparing the presentation I didn’t know exactly who the audience would be and the format of the workshop. Then it is difficult to plan for a linear presentation. Since I had lots of video material to show, this wasn’t an ideal time to use the document camera, either. So I decided to test out a mind map-based presentation.

Below is an embed of the presentation I made:

And here are screenshots showing the fully collapsed and fully open versions of the mind map.

I had planned a structure of how I would run the presentation, moving clockwise through the material. I kept with that plan, more or less. What was nice was that I could adjust how many levels I should dig into the material. After listening to some of the speakers before me, I decided to skip certain parts. This was easy because I could leave out opening some of the sublevels of the presentation.

Here is a recording of the presentation:

I had some issues with the network connection in the beginning (yes, presenting over wifi is not a good idea, but it is sometimes unavoidably), so apologies for the poor audio/video in some parts of the presentation.

I still have to get more familiar with moving around in such presentations, but all in all, I am happy about the flexibility of such a presentation tool. It allows for developing a fairly large pool of material that it is possible to draw on when presenting. Rather than deleting/hiding slides in a linear presentation, a mind map-based presentation can easily be adjusted by not opening various parts.

What is a musical instrument?

A piano is an instrument. So is a violin. But what about the voice? Or a fork? Or a mobile phone? So what is (really) a musical instrument? That was the title of a short lecture I held at UiO’s Open Day today.

The 15-minute lecture is a very quick version of some of the concepts I have been working on for a new book project. Here I present a model for understanding what a musical instrument is and how new technology changes how we make and experience music.

The original lecture was in Norwegian, but I got inspired and recorded an English version right afterwards:

If you rather prefer the original, Norwegian version, here it is:

And, if you do want to learn more about these things, you can apply for one of our study programmes before 15 April: bachelor or master of musicology, or master of music, communication and technology.

New run of Music Moves

I am happy to announce a new run (the 6th) of our free online course Music Moves: Why Does Music Make You Move?. Here is a 1-minute welcome that I recorded for Twitter:

The course starts on Monday (25 January 2021) and will run for six weeks. In the course, you will learn about the psychology of music and movement, and how researchers study music-related movements, with this free online course.

We developed the course 5 years ago, but the content is still valid. I also try to keep it up to date by recording new weekly wrap-ups with interviews with researchers around here at UiO.

I highly recommend joining the course on FutureLearn, that is the only way to get all the content, including videos, articles, quizzes, and, most importantly, the dialogue with other learners. But if you are only interested in watching videos, all of them are available on this UiO page and this YouTube playlist.

Teaching with a document camera

How does an “old-school” document camera work for modern-day teaching? Remarkably well, I think. Here are some thoughts on my experience over the last few years.

The reason I got started with a document camera was because I felt the need for a more flexible setup for my classroom teaching. Conference presentations with limited time are better done with linear presentation tools, I think, since the slides help with the flow. But for classroom teaching, in which dialogue with students is at the forefront, such linear presentation tools do not give me the flexibility that I need.

Writing on a black/whiteboard could have been an option, but in many modern classrooms these have been replaced by projector screens. I also find that writing on a board is much more tricky than writing with pen on paper. So a document camera, which is essentially a modernized “overhead projector”, is a good solution.

After a little bit of research some years back, I ended up buying a Lumens Ladibug DC193. The reason I went for this one, was because it had the features I needed, combined with being the only nice-looking document camera I could find (aesthetics is important!). A nice feature is that it has a built-in light, which helps in creating a better image also when the room lighting is not very bright.

My Lumens Ladibug DC193 document camera is red and has a built-in light.

One very useful feature of the document camera, is the ability to connect my laptop to the HDMI input on the Ladibug, and then connect the Ladibug HDMI output to the screen. The built-in “video mixer” makes it possible to switch between the document camera and the computer screen. This is a feature I have been using much more than I expected, and allows me to change between slides shown on the PC, some hand-writing on paper, and showing parts of web pages.

When I first got the document camera, I thought that I was going to use the built-in recording functionality a lot. It is possible to connect a USB drive directly to the camera, and make recordings. Unfortunately, the video quality is not very good, and the audio quality from the built-in mono microphone is horrible.

One of the best things about a document camera is that it can be used for other things than just showing text on paper. This is particularly useful when I teach with small devices (instruments and electronics) that are difficult to see at a distance. Placing them on the table below the camera makes them appear large and clear on the screen. One challenge, however, is that the document camera is optimized for text on white paper. So I find that it is best to place a white paper sheet under what I want to show.

Things became a little more complicated when I started to teach in the MCT programme. Here all teaching is happening in the Portal, which connects the two campuses in Oslo and Trondheim. Here we use Zoom for the basic video communication, with a number of different computers connected to make it all work together. I was very happy to find that the Ladibug showed up as a regular “web camera” when I connected it to my PC with a USB cable. This makes it possible to connect and send it as a video source to one of the Zoom screens in our setup.

When teaching in the MCT Portal, I connect the Ladibug with USB to my PC, and then send the video to Zoom from my laptop.

The solution presented above works well in the Portal, where we already have a bunch of other cameras and computers that handle the rest of the communication. For streaming setups outside of the Portal I have previously shown how it is possible to connect the document camera to the Blackmagic web presenter, which allows for also connecting a regular video camera to the SDI input.

More recently I have also explored the use of a video mixer (Sony MCX-500), which allows for connecting more video cameras and microphones at once. Since the video mixer cannot be connected directly to a PC, it is necessary to also add in the Blackmagic web presenter in the mix. This makes for a quite large and complex setup. I used it for one remote lecture once, and even though it worked, it was not as streamlined as I hoped for. So I will need to find an easier solution in the future.

Exploring a more complex remote teaching setup, including a video mixer in addition to document camera and web presenter.

What is clear, however, is that a document camera is very useful for my teaching style. The Ladibug has served me well for some time, but I will soon start to look for a replacement. I particularly miss having full HD, better calibration of the image, as well as better recording functionality. I hope manufacturers are still developing this type of niche product, ideally also nice-looking ones!

Some tips and tricks when writing academic papers

I have been teaching the course Research Methods, Tools and Issues in our MCT programme this semester. The last class was an “open clinic” in which I answered questions about academic writing. Here is a summary of some of the things I answered, which may hopefully also be useful for others.

Formatting

Your academic exam paper is not the place to experiment with fancy layout and formatting. Some basic tips:

  • Template: Choose a conservative template (but not too old-school). Check that it is in A4, as templates using a North-American “letter” paper size looks weird when/if printed in A4.
  • Font: A serif font typically looks more serious than a sans-serif, so “Times New Roman” or something similar is the safest choice.
  • Paragraphs: There are different ways of formatting paragraphs. The two most common ones are: (1) indented first lines, (2) spaces between lines. The first type is the most common in professional type-setting and is what you see in books and academic journals. It is also the most space-conservative. Making spaces between lines is what most people do when they write on computers. Choose whichever type you want, but do not mix the two.

Writing

It is impossible to cover everything about academic writing here. But these are the things I usually comment on when I supervise:

  • Long sentences: It is better to write short and meaningful sentences than long and complex ones. Many students think that their text will look more academic if they make long sentences. The truth, however, is that it is much more pleasurable to read well-formed and meaningful sentences. The general rule of thumb is to include only one point in a sentence. If in doubt, start a new sentence. It also helps to read your text out loud. Whenever you feel that
  • Short sentences: Some students only write very short sentences. This is not good either, so find a balance.

Spelling and grammar

Whatever you do, ensure that your texts are not full of spelling mistakes. You should also reduce the number of grammatical errors. There are so many tools available to help you these days, so there is no excuse for not using them before you submit your final text.

Figures

Figures are nice, please include them! But when you do, always think about this:

  • Label: Figures should always have a figure name (“Figure 1”) followed by an explanation of what the figure is about (“This figure shows…”). Ideally, the figure text should be sufficient to understand what the figure aims at conveying of information. Many people (like myself) like to browse through papers and books quickly, and use the figures as a way to quickly navigate the content. Then it helps if the figure texts are self-explanatory.
  • Text size: Figures are often made in different software than where you write. This means that you typically do not have full control of their size in the final layout, hence the text inside of the figure may be too large and too big. As part of the final layout, you should try to make the text size similar to the text size of the main document within which the figure is placed.
  • Units, labels and legends: If you include graphs or other types of representations of numbers, it is critical to include information about what the axes mean and the units that you have used (“Time (s)”, “Number of people”, “Vertical position (mm)”). You should also have clearly marked legends (if relevant) to explain what the different lines in your figure are.
  • Simplify: You should always aim to remove unnecessary stuff from figures so that the most important things are what people see. This follows Tufte’s ideal of aspiring for a high “data-ink ratio”.

References

Adding references to your text, and including a bibliography at the end of your document, is the clearest sign that you are writing an academic paper.

  • Consistency: Ensure that all citations have an entry in the bibliography. Similarly, all entries in the bibliography should be referenced in the text.
  • Reference manager: Use a reference manager to keep track of everything. While it is not perfect, I generally recommend Zotero. It works on all platforms, has an online front-end, and integrates with many writing platforms.

Submission

  • PDF: If you are not asked to do otherwise, always submit a PDF file. This will ensure that both content and layout are preserved for the final reader. Submitting your “raw files” (.docx, .pages, .odt, etc.) is problematic for a number of reasons. First, they may not be readable by people on different platforms (.pages files only work on OSX, for example). Second, often such raw files contain the history of the file, which you may not want the end reader to see. This may be particularly important if you have been using track changes.
  • Good naming: Always give your file a useful name. If your exam is anonymous, include your candidate number in the file name. If not anonymous, include your last name. Your examiner will probably download a zip-folder with all submissions. Having a bunch of files with names such as “exam.pdf”, “submission.pdf”, etc., is annoying.
  • Supplementary files: It is often fine/useful/required to submit supplementary material. Then it is usually good to have a list at the end of your main document describing what you have chosen to include (for example, a list describing audio files). If you have many supplementary files, you should zip them down and give them a useful name. Again: remember that the reader will download your submission together with a bunch of other things. It is your job to make the read as pleasurable as possible.

General form

The standard “IMRAD” form of a paper looks like this:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
    • Motivation (could include a rhetorical question/something catchy)
    • Research question(s)
    • (Hypotheses)
    • Definitions
    • Limitations / scope
    • Overview of the paper
  • Background (either chronological or topical)
  • Methods (be precise – explain what you did, how, etc)
  • Results
  • Discussion
  • Conclusion

Many interaction papers, and also “NIME-like” papers, have a form something like:

  • Abstract
  • Introduction
  • Background
  • Method
  • Design
  • Implementation
  • Evaluation / Discussion
  • Conclusion